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ZHOU Shangui. Study on Superheavy Nuclei and Superheavy Elements[J]. Nuclear Physics Review, 2017, 34(3): 318-331. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.318
Citation: ZHOU Shangui. Study on Superheavy Nuclei and Superheavy Elements[J]. Nuclear Physics Review, 2017, 34(3): 318-331. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.318

Study on Superheavy Nuclei and Superheavy Elements

doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.318
Funds:  National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (11525524); National Key Basic Research Program of China (2013CB834400); National Natural Science Foundation of China (11621131001, 11647601 and 11711540016); Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences of CAS
  • Received Date: 2017-02-20
  • Rev Recd Date: 2017-02-20
  • Publish Date: 2017-07-18
  • The exploration of charge and mass limits of atomic nuclei and the synthesis of long-lived or stable superheavy nuclei (SHN) are at the frontier of modern nuclear physics. In the 1960s, based on the stability originating from quantum shell effects, the possible existence of an island of stability around 298114 was predicted. This prediction advanced the construction of heavy ion accelerators and detectors and the development of heavy ion physics. So far, superheavy elements (SHE) with Z up to 118 have been synthesized via heavy ion fusion reactions in laboratories. Recently the IUPAC/IUPAP Joint Working Party (JWP) concluded that criteria for the discovery of new elements have been met for those with Z=113, 115, 117 and 118. Therefore the seventh period of the periodic table of elements is completed. To synthesize even heavier elements or more neutron-rich SHN by using heavy ion fusion reactions, one confronts many challenges. More efforts should be made to study the properties of SHN both experimentally and theoretically. In this short review on the study on SHN and SHE, we will first introduce the background and theoretical predictions of SHN, including the origin of the possible existence of SHN and the predicted island of stability of SHN, etc. Then we will present progresses made up to now concerning the synthesis of SHN and the naming of the four new elements. As for the challenges nuclear physicists confront in synthesizing even heavier SHEs, we will detail those connected with heavy ion fusion-evaporation reactions, namely, the tiny cross sections to produce SHN and the fact that only neutron-deficient SHNs can be synthesized. Finally we will discuss some theoretical progresses on the study of SHN, including the structure of SHN and proton and neutron magic numbers after 208Pb, the stability and the synthesis mechanism of SHN as well as what we should focus on in the future.
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Study on Superheavy Nuclei and Superheavy Elements

doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.318
Funds:  National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (11525524); National Key Basic Research Program of China (2013CB834400); National Natural Science Foundation of China (11621131001, 11647601 and 11711540016); Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences of CAS

Abstract: The exploration of charge and mass limits of atomic nuclei and the synthesis of long-lived or stable superheavy nuclei (SHN) are at the frontier of modern nuclear physics. In the 1960s, based on the stability originating from quantum shell effects, the possible existence of an island of stability around 298114 was predicted. This prediction advanced the construction of heavy ion accelerators and detectors and the development of heavy ion physics. So far, superheavy elements (SHE) with Z up to 118 have been synthesized via heavy ion fusion reactions in laboratories. Recently the IUPAC/IUPAP Joint Working Party (JWP) concluded that criteria for the discovery of new elements have been met for those with Z=113, 115, 117 and 118. Therefore the seventh period of the periodic table of elements is completed. To synthesize even heavier elements or more neutron-rich SHN by using heavy ion fusion reactions, one confronts many challenges. More efforts should be made to study the properties of SHN both experimentally and theoretically. In this short review on the study on SHN and SHE, we will first introduce the background and theoretical predictions of SHN, including the origin of the possible existence of SHN and the predicted island of stability of SHN, etc. Then we will present progresses made up to now concerning the synthesis of SHN and the naming of the four new elements. As for the challenges nuclear physicists confront in synthesizing even heavier SHEs, we will detail those connected with heavy ion fusion-evaporation reactions, namely, the tiny cross sections to produce SHN and the fact that only neutron-deficient SHNs can be synthesized. Finally we will discuss some theoretical progresses on the study of SHN, including the structure of SHN and proton and neutron magic numbers after 208Pb, the stability and the synthesis mechanism of SHN as well as what we should focus on in the future.

ZHOU Shangui. Study on Superheavy Nuclei and Superheavy Elements[J]. Nuclear Physics Review, 2017, 34(3): 318-331. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.318
Citation: ZHOU Shangui. Study on Superheavy Nuclei and Superheavy Elements[J]. Nuclear Physics Review, 2017, 34(3): 318-331. doi: 10.11804/NuclPhysRev.34.03.318
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